In: W. van Oorschot, H. Peeters, C. Boos (eds), Invisible social security revisited: Essays in honour of Jos Berghman, Tielt, Belgium. Lannoo Publishers. pp. 145-160.
For at least two decades, European countries have been earnestly striving to reform their social models, tailored on increasingly surpassed economic and socio-demographic structures. This effort has been guided by a number of common principles, many of them developed by the European Union: sustainability and efficiency, flexicurity, inclusion, social protection as a "productive factor", new partnerships between private and public actors, social investment, social innovation. Almost all EU countries have had a hand in their pension systems in response to demographic challenges and problems of financial sustainability. Labour markets and policies were reformed and some progress has been made in terms of new policies and measures favoring women and children, frail and dependent elderly, the fight against poverty and exclusion [...]